Testing & Screening

Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.

Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the things around us to see if they cause cancer. This information helps doctors recommend who should be screened for cancer, which screening tests should be used, and how often the tests should be done.

Screening Tests That Have Been Shown to Reduce Cancer Deaths

  • Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and high-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs)
    These tests have all been shown to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy also help prevent colorectal cancer because they can detect abnormal colon growths (polyps) that can be removed before they develop into cancer. Expert groups generally recommend that people who are at average risk for colorectal cancer have screening at ages 50 through 75. For more information, see the Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps fact sheet and the PDQ® Colorectal Cancer Screening summary.
  • Low-dose helical computed tomography
    This test to screen for lung cancer has been shown to reduce lung cancer deaths among heavy smokers ages 55 to 74. For more information, see the National Lung Screening Trial page and the PDQ® Lung Cancer Screening summary.
  • Mammography
    This method to screen for breast cancer has been shown to reduce mortality from the disease among women ages 40 to 74, especially those age 50 or older. For more information, see the Mammograms fact sheet and the PDQ® Breast Cancer Screening summary.
  • Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing
    These tests reduce the incidence of cervical cancer because they allow abnormal cells to be identified and treated before they become cancer. They also reduce deaths from cervical cancer. Testing is generally recommended to begin at age 21 and to end at age 65, as long as recent results have been normal. For more information, see the Pap and HPV Testing fact sheet and the PDQ® Cervical Cancer Screening summary.

Other Screening Tests

  • Alpha-fetoprotein blood test
    This test is sometimes used, along with ultrasound of the liver, to try to detect liver cancer early in people at high risk of the disease. For more information, see the PDQ® Liver (Hepatocelluar) Cancer Screening summary.
  • Breast MRI
    This imaging test is often used for women who carry a harmful mutation in the BRCA1gene or the BRCA2 gene; such women have a high risk of breast cancer, as well as increased risk for other cancers. For more information, see the BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing fact sheet and the PDQ® Breast Cancer Screening summary.
  • CA-125 test
    This blood test, which is often done together with a transvaginal ultrasound, may be used to try to detect ovarian cancer early, especially in women with an increased risk of the disease. Although this test can help in diagnosing ovarian cancer in women who have symptoms and can be used to evaluate the recurrence of cancer in women previously diagnosed with the disease, it has not been shown to be an effective ovarian cancer screening test. For more information, see the PDQ® Ovarian Cancer Screening summary.
  • Clinical breast exams and regular breast self-exams
    Routine examination of the breasts by health care providers or by women themselves has not been shown to reduce deaths from breast cancer. However, if a woman or her health care provider notices a lump or other unusual change in the breast, it is important to get it checked out. For more information, see the PDQ® Breast Cancer Screening summary.
  • PSA test
    This blood test, which is often done along with a digital rectal exam, is able to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. However, expert groups no longer recommend routine PSA testing for most men because studies have shown that it has little or no effect on prostate cancer deaths and leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. For more information, see the Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test fact sheet and the PDQ® Prostate Cancer Screening summary.
  • Skin exams
    Doctors often recommend that people who are at risk for skin cancer examine their skin regularly or have a health care provider do so. Such exams have not been shown to decrease the risk of dying from skin cancer, and they may lead to overtreatment. However, people should be aware of changes in their skin, such as a new mole or a change to an existing mole, and report these to their doctor promptly. For more information, see the Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma fact sheet and the PDQ® Skin Cancer Screening summary.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
    This imaging test, which can create pictures of a woman’s ovaries and uterus, is sometimes used in women who are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (because they carry a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation) or of endometrial cancer (because they have a condition called Lynch syndrome). But it has not been shown to reduce deaths from either cancer. For more information, see the PDQ® Ovarian Cancer Screening summary and the PDQ® Endometrial Cancer Screening summary.
  • Virtual colonoscopy
    This test allows the colon and rectum to be examined from outside the body. However, it has not been shown to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. For more information, see the Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps fact sheet and the PDQ® Colorectal Cancer Screening summary.

Cancer Screening Overview
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Anal Cancer Screening
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Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening
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Cervical Cancer Screening
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Colorectal Cancer Screening
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Intestinal Cancer Screening
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Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening
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Pancreatic Cancer Screening
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Penile Cancer Screening
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Prostate Cancer Screening
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Testicular Cancer Screening
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Uterine Cancer Screening
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Testing information courtesy of Cancer.gov.

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